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Evaluation of Land Cover Dynamics and Landscape Fragmentation in Ijebu Ode, Nigeria


Landscape fragmentation has been found to be a major consequence of urbanization and of land use/cover (LULC) changes. Thus, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal land use/land cover changes of Ijebu Ode, Nigeria between 1986 and 2021. This is with a view to assessing the pattern of landscape fragmentation in the study area. The study used data obtained through Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and satellite imageries (Landsat 5 MSS/TM, 1986; Landsat 7 ETM+, 2000 and 2014; and Landsat 8 OLI/TIR, 2021). Data were analyzed using spatial landscape metrics. Results indicated that Ijebu Ode has witnessed dramatic increase of built-up areas between 1986 and 2000 by 11.03%, 2000 to 2014 (65.24%), and 2014 to 2021 by 131.25%. Expansion of the built-up area was aided by reductions in bare land (1986 to 2000, 15.78%; 2014 to 2021, 98.27%), and the cultivated area by 47.74% between 1986 and 2014. Landscape metrics were estimated over the four epochs of study. Results revealed that most of the metrics suggest similar trends over the entire periods of study. However, Largest Patch Index (LPI), Landscape Shape Index (LSI) and Normalized Landscape Shape Index (NLSI) were useful in capturing the spatio-temporal variations in landscape transformation. Also, Class Area (CA) was useful to show the degree of land cover changes. The study concluded that location of spatial structures influenced the landscape patterns influence and urbanization processes in the study area. Hence, the study recommended for regular monitoring of the expansion of the built-up area to check the imminent urban sprawl in the study area.


land use, landscape fragmentation, spatial metrics, landscape pattern, Ijebu Ode



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