Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Comparison between Mineralogical Properties of Oak Forest and Un-Cultivated Soils in Iraqi Kurdistan Region


This study was conducted to identify the mineralogical properties of oak forest and un-cultivated soils at 12 locations in the Iraqi Kurdistan region, which included (Brifca, Gara, and Matin) in Duhok governorate, (Awagrd, Bilah, and Malakan) in Erbil governorate, (Badawan, Bardanga, and Chwarta) in Sulaimani Governorate and (Bakhakon, Hawar, and Sartak) in Halabja governorate. Clay minerals were identified from X-ray diffraction data and peaks. Peak height is used as a rough indicator of the relative abundance of minerals. In general, the expansion of 14A to 17A in ethylene glycol treatment was not detected because measuring started from 5 so thats why we cannot be differentiated between Chlorite and Smectite in that treatment. Swelling chlorite was the dominant mineral in these soils. While the miner clay mineral at that locations were Kaolinite. Mica was identified at all locations, while the dominant type of Mica at forest soils was Muscovite which was obtained from 6 sites, while Mica Biotite was obtained from 4 sites, but in un-cultivated sites, both types of mica recorded at 5 sites.


Forest Soils, Un-cultivated soils, Clay minerals, Chlorite



  1. Ali, N. S. (2015). Temporal Variation of the Nutrients Content of the Forest Trees and Soils at Hijran and Zawita Sites. College of Agriculture, Salahaddin University- Erbil, Kurdistan Region-Iraq.
  2. Al-Jaff, B. O. A. (2006). Natural Occurrence and Formation of Interstratified Minerals with Influence Factors in Some Iraqi Soils. PhD Dissertation submitted to College of Agriculture University of Baghdad.
  3. Al-Jaff, B. O. and Essa, S. Kh. (2020). Effect of Plant Coverage on Mineralogical Changes of Mica in Rhizosphere. Iraqi journal of Agricultural Science, 51 (1). Pp: 493 – 499.
  4. Anderson, J. U. (1963). An improved pretreatment for mineralogical analysis of samples containing organic matter. Clays and Clay Minerals. 10 (1), pp. 380–388.
  5. April, R. H., Keller, D. and Driscoll, C. T. (2004). Smectite in spodosols from the Adirondack Mountains of New York. Clay Minerals. 39 (1), pp. 99–113.
  6. Barwari, V. I. H. (2013). Soil Physic-Chemical Properties as Influenced by Slope Position Under Different Vegetation Covers In Duhok Governorate. M.Sc. Thesis Submitted to the Council of the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Duhok. Pp 137.
  7. Berner R. A. (1992). Weathering, Plants, and the Long-Term Carbon Cycle. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 56: 3225 – 3231.
  8. Berner, R. A. (1995). Chemical Weathering and its Effect on Atmospheric CO2 and Climate. Chemical Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals (White, A.F. and Brantly, S,L., Eds.) Reviews in Mineralogy 31, 565 – 583.
  9. Dixon, J. B. and Weed, S. B. (1989). Minerals in Soil Environments. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3. Chemical Methods. Madison: Soil Science Society of America. pp. 357–404.
  10. FAO. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. (1999). State of the World’s Forests. Rome. pp. 168.
  11. Kunze, G. W. and Dixon, J. B. (1986). Pretreatment for Mineralogical Analysis. In: A. KLUTE, ed. Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 1 Physical and Mineralogical Methods. Madison,USA: American Society of Agronomy. pp. 1188.
  12. Mehra, O. P. and Jackson, M. L. (1960). Iron Oxide Removal From Soils and Clays By a Dithionite–Citrate System Buffered With Sodium Bicarbonate. Clays and Clay Minerals. pp. 317–327.
  13. Muhammad, D. A. (2007). The Interaction between Organic Matter and Semectite in Some Iraqi Soils of Different agricultural Land Use. PhD Dissertation submitted to College of Agriculture University of Sulaimani – Iraq.
  14. Seguin, V., Courchesne, F., Gagnon, C., Martin, R. P., Naftel, S. J. and W. Skinner. (2005). Mineral Weathering in the Rhizosphere of Forested Soil. In P. M. Huang and G. R. Gobran (Ed) Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements in the Rhizosphere. Elsevier. Amsterdam, Netherlands. P. 29 – 55.
  15. Sheikh Abdullah Sh. M. (2012). Effect of Plant on Transformation of Mica to Expandable Minerals in Some Forest Soils of Iraqi Kurdistan Region. Ph.D Dissertation, Submitted to the Council of Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, University of Sulaimani Iraq. Pp: 161
  16. Sheikh Abdullah, S. M and Essa, S. Kh. (2015). The Morphological Features of Mica and Chlorite Minerals in Fine Sand Fraction in Some Forest Soils in Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Kurdistan. International journal of plant, Animal and Environmental Science. 5 (2). Pp: 97 – 104.
  17. Yahya, A. M. (1982). Genesis and Classification of Zawita Forest in Duhok Province. Msc Thesis Submitted to College of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University, Iraq.