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Potential of Multispectral Satellite Data for Superficial Iron Oxide Detection in Sulaimaniyah, Iraqi Kurdistan Region


This study primarily investigates the total (Fe) iron presence in Sulaimaniyah Governorate, the Iraqi Kurdistan Region (IKR), which has an abundance of iron mines. Spatial quantification and frequent monitoring of mineral existence in the soil are essential in the mining regions. To achieve this goal, a remote sensing technique was utilized to predict soil minerals, particularly iron existence in the study area using a multispectral satellite image, Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+).  A robust methodology was perceived and developed from image processing to estimate and map iron oxides rich soils, and soil’s spectral indices were obtained after algorithms applied in processing on the bands of Landsat image. Soil samples were collected and analyzed in the laboratory to determine the chemical, physical, and mineralogical characteristics of soils. Correlation coefficients were carried out between soil properties and spectral band values retrieved from image analysis to examine the band potentials of Landsat. The statistical results showed that there was a significant relationship between the 3rd band of the ETM+ image and each of the total iron (R2 = 0.643), the free iron oxide (R2 = 0.659), and sand particles (R2 = 0.561). The predicted soil mineral maps were generated for the study area to visualize the study site's soil characterization and total iron spread. This study results could help primarily identify the spatial distribution of some soil properties in Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.


Iron Oxide, Statistical analyses, Landsat ETM , Sulaimaniyah, Iraq



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